Danish M/48 helmet (US M1 helmet and Austrian "Ulbrichts" clone)
In the first years after WWII, the Danish army used three main types of helmets. The British "turtle" helmet + the Mk II and the Swedish M/37. We tried to produce our own helmet, the M/46, however the Danish army decided to introduce the American M1 helmet instead. It was cheap and well made. It remained the standard combat headgear in the Danish army until the 1990s (1992) when the first kevlar helmets, produced by Schubert in Germany, and the first flak jacket was introduced. In the beginning only issued to the Danish soldiers in the Balkans during the turbulent years. Later the French Gallet helmet was introduced as the M/96. This helmet is still issued to Home Guard, and conscripts during national service.
All M1's in Danish service were in the beginning surplus WWII helmets. A small Danish production was begun in 1957. Most likely by the company A/S Glud og Marstrand. These helmets were made of magnetic steel, and came with a Bakelite / resin liner. All of them went to the civil defence, since they were deemed unusable by the army.
The Danish resin liners were used by both the army and civil defence, and have a very unique smell. It is possible that the resin used during production is different from the one used to make the US liners. The liners were of a poor quality, and did not last long in the Danish weather.
After abandoning the idea of producing M1 helmets in Denmark, the Armed Forces decided to purchase M1 clones from other European nations, with a more developed steel industry. These helmets arrived in several batches, and the first batch from Germany, by the company LS (Linnemann Schnetzer), arrived in the late 1950s.(1)
During the 1960s and 1970s (1965 & 1973(2)) the Danish army received more M1 clones from Austrian and Germany. These helmets are known as the M/48-65, although to be honest, the nomenclature is unclear and I would not trust it too much.
The Danish M1 clones were produced by three main suppliers:
In 1963 the old WWII and clone shells alike were given a hard thermo-plastic liner produced in Denmark by Dansk Kunststof Industri - DKI. These liners did not dissolve in the humid Danish weather like the resin liners, and had a greater impact strength - improving the overall strength of the entire construction.
The M/63 "DKI" liners were made of fibreglass impregnated with coloured polystyrene, and were made in four, possible five, different colours: Green (army), grey (civil defence), blue (navy), black (police) and possible white. Later DKI produced a high visibility orange liner for the Civil defence. The liners were able cope with temperatures ranging from -30 to +40 degrees Celsius.
DKI also sold the same helmet liner to the Norwegians, when they introduced the M1 helmet, as the M/58 and the Dutch.
The helmets were usually used together with a cotton helmet net. The net was very similar, almost identical, to the US M/44 net. All webbing parts were kept in a olive green shade, and all metal work on buckles and metal fittings were normally kept in brass - but steel was used as well. The earlier clones and US shells were refitted with a chinstrap that was riveted to the swivel bales, and the rivet used is slightly larger than the US counterpart.
The helmets were made of a non-magnetic metal, the so called Mangalloy because of its high impact strength and resistance to abrasion. - WIKI: Mangalloy
If you want additional information on the M1 helmets, visit Mannie's blog.
(1): Date stamps on LS helmets are not older than 1959 on Danish used shells.
(2): The date stamps on VDN and U.SCH. helmets are no later than 1965 and not earlier than 73, as far as I am informed. But it is unclear if Denmark received any additional helmets in the 1980s.
First helmet is a M1 -Front seam helmet made by McCord Radiators late in the war or in the late 1940s (45-49).
Heat stamp: 926A
Liner is of the 1963 DKI type, and the chinstraps both on shell and liner are made of cotton.
Colour is perhaps "apple green" - a very "glossy" green. The helmet is most likely repainted several times during the years, and this colour is not original.
Buckles and fittings are all brass.
Second helmet is a Austrian clone shell made by Ulbrichts (U.SCH.) in 1965. It too has a DKI type liner. Liner chinstraps is made of a poly--cotton mix.
The chinstrap on the shell is the US M/73, with chin cup that is made out of nylon and cotton webbing.
The particular helmet came with a "red cross" helmet band stamped FMI Forsvarets Materiel Intendantur and from 1963.